Mucus is a natural barrier that impedes pathogens to invade the body and initiate infection. Contrary to most nanocarriers, Vaxinano’s starch nanoparticles are able to cross the mucus layer and induce an immune protective response (Fasquelle F. & al., ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2020). This explains why Vaxinano’s vaccines are efficient via the mucosal administration route, acting against a large number of pathogens - such as Influenza viruses and Toxoplasma gondii - without the addition of any adjuvants (Le MQ. & al., Int. J. Pharm. 2020; Ducournau C. & al., Front. Immunol. 2020).
A vaccine is designed to simulate an infection by a pathogen without causing the disease. This medicinal is generally composed by the antigens of the pathogens mixed with adjuvants, altogether triggering a protective immune response.
Most pathogens invade the host body via the mucosal surfaces in the nasal cavity, lung, mouth, gut, vagina, functioning as an interface with the surrounding environment. These surfaces are covered by a biological gel, called mucus, sequestering the pathogens outside of the body, thus limiting the onset of the infection.
Mucosal vaccines induce a protective response both at the mucosal (local) and at the systemic levels. This two-faced immunity is hardly obtained using adjuvanted vaccines administered via the mucosal route, due to inefficient delivery of antigens and toxicity. Nanocarriers were developed to assist antigens in crossing the mucus layer, being thereby captured by the immune cells. However, many nanocarriers show some disadvantages related to issues during the muco-penetration phase (i.e., they overpass the barrier without delivering the antigens to cells) or because mucoadhesion, remaining trapped in the mucus. In both cases, the resulting vaccination is inefficient.
Therefore, nanocarrier-based nasal vaccines have to necessarily by-pass this barrier and activate the immune cells to overcome these problems.
The Vaxinano’s technology, relying on bio-based products, has demonstrated to be extremely efficient at delivering antigens directly into mucosa cells. Today, we explained such an efficiency by the effective mucus-penetrating feature of the nanocarriers, making this platform ideal and universal for the preparation of mucosal vaccines.
In addition, the high efficiency of Vaxinano’s nanocarriers does not require the addition of any adjuvants, as demonstrated against a large number of pathogens including viruses and parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii
(Le MQ. & al., Int. J. Pharm. 2020
; Ducournau C. & al., Front. Immunol. 2020
For more information: Fasquelle F. & al., Importance of phospholipid core for mucin hydrogel penetration and mucosal cell uptake of maltodextrin nanoparticles. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2020
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